This article is written by Vanshika Kasturi, a 3rd year law student at DSNLU, Vishakhapatnam
Importance of the education policies:
Governments around the world places primary emphasis on the nation’s education policy. There is global pressure on increased attention to the results of education policies and their impact on social and economic development. However, there is often a lack of understanding of how education policies are formed and what constitutes education policy. An attempt in this article is to analyze the nature of the new education policy, the basic features of new education policy and intendedresults of this policy. Education policy refers to the rules and principles governing operation of the education system.
Understanding the Indian education system:
The Indian education system has gone through a long journey, it has travelled all the way from the gurukul system to the British education system, we have travelled from the traditional form of imparting knowledge to the more modernized form of education which had embraced the more English outlook of it.
Education is for all: Education for all
Education had been made available to all of the students of India through the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan policy of India. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan or The Education for All Movement is a central government program which aimed at universalizing elementary education in a time bound manner. This program hasbeen in operation since 2000-2001.
However, its origin dates back to 1993-94, when the District Primary Education Program (DPEP) was launched. DPEP had basically aimed at fulfilling the goal of universalization of primary education. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan aimed at creating an ideal system of education which enabled individuals to develop and inculcate knowledge, create awareness of social. and human values, and build a strong character. SSA proposed that the education system must develop in consonance with contemporary societal needs.
RTE- a way of ensuring everyone has equal access to education
We as a country further worked on making right to education a fundamental right, Right to Education Act or Right of Children for Free and Compulsory Education Act stressedthe importance of free and compulsory education for children who are in the age group of 6 to 14 year. The act appeared on April 1, 2010 and since that time India became one of the 131 countries to make education a basic right of every child. Furthermore, the law stipulates that allprivate schools must reserve 25% of seats for children from socially disadvantaged groups. It also laid down that no child will be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination untilcompletion of basic education. For children there is a special training school dropout, is given belowAct. Because education is facing the same problem in India, responsibility of implementation of this law has been distributed among the central, state and local government agencies. The central government bears 70 percent of the cost of implementing this Act and 30percent is provided by the state government. But then again even this was not easily accepted and had a zillion hurdles but none the less it succeeded in coming into force
The new education policy
The National Education Policy was framed in 1986 and changed in 1992. More than 3 long decades have surpassed since preceding Policy. During this era great modifications have taken vicinity of our states, society economy, and the arena of education at large. It is on this context that the training area of education desires to gear itself towards the demands of the 21st Century and the desires of the human beings and the united states. Quality, innovation and research may be the pillars on which India becomes a expertise great education. Clearly, a new Education Policy is wanted.
The Committee for preparation of the draft National Education Policy submitted its file to the Ministry on 31.05.2019. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 became uploaded on MHRD’s website and also at MyGov Innovate portal eliciting views/guidelines/feedback of various stakeholders, such as public. The draft NEP is based totally on the foundational pillars “admission, affordability, equity, best and accountability.”
Post submission of Draft Report States/UTs Governments and Government of India’s Ministries were invited to offer their perspectives and remarks on Draft National Education Policy 2019. A brief summary of the Draft National Education Policy 2019 become circulated amongst diverse stakeholders, which became additionally translated in 22 languages and uploaded at the Ministry’s website. Meetings with State Education Secretaries of School Education and with State Secretaries of Higher & Technical Education had been held. An Education Dialogue with Hon’ble MPs of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka & Odisha was held to seek their perspective on the new education policy.
A special assembly of Central advisor board on education on National Education Policy was held. In the meeting, 26 Education Ministers of numerous States and UTs, representatives of States and Union Territories, Members of CABE, Heads of Autonomous Organizations, Vice-Chancellors of Universities, attended the meeting alongside senior officers of the Central and State Governments. Around 2 lakh recommendations on the Draft National Education Policy acquired from diverse stakeholders. A meeting on Draft NEP 2019 of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development became held on 07.11.2019.Currently, the exercise of components of the National Education Policy is ongoing and it is going to be finalized quickly.
The essential changes that have been included in the new policy
NEP 2020 specializes in guarantying the right of entry and admission to high school education in various aspects right, from pre-school to secondary. The Government will provide infrastructure guide and increase innovation centers to carry back dropouts into the mainstream. It may also preserve a harmony of students and their mastering levels, facilitate more than one pathways to attainment of each formal and non-formal schooling modes, putting in place an affiliation of counselors or well-trained social servants with faculties, for attainment of lessons 3, 5 and 8 through NIOS and State Open Schools, secondary schooling programs equivalent to Grades 10 and 12, vocational publications, person literacy and life-enrichment applications for the benefit of the dropouts.
Early Childhood Care and Education with new Curricular and Pedagogical Structure
The 10+2 shape of faculty curriculum will be replaced by using 5+3+3+4 shape similar to a long time three-eight, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years, respectively. The stage of three-6 years is known globally as essential years for the development of the intellectual centers of a toddler. This policy will convey the age group under the college curriculum. Thus, the student in the new system could have 12 years of training with three years of Anganwadi or pre-education.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) will broaden to a National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for youngsters up to the age of eight. This can be brought through the bolstered machine of establishments inclusive of Anganwadis and pre-faculties in an effort to have instructors and Anganwadi employees educated inside the Early childhood education and care (ECEC)pedagogy and curriculum. Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs will mutually conduct the planning and implementation of the scheme.
Attaining Foundational Literacy and Numeracy
MHRD will set up National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy for attaining everyday foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary faculties for all beginners from grade 3 to higher stage through 2025.
The change in higher education
Increase in Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) to 50% by way of 2035
The policy has set a target to growth GER in higher education which includes vocational education from 26.3% in 2018 to 50 % cent by the end of 2035. Higher schooling establishments (HEIs) will be given 3.5 crore new seats.
Holistic Multidisciplinary Education
The degree can be of 3 or 4 years with multiple exit options and appropriate certification which are a privilege for this era. For instance, a certificate will be given after one-year, Advanced Diploma after two years, Bachelor’s Degree after three years and Bachelor’s with Research after 4 years. An Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) will be set up for digitally storing academic credit earned from unique HEIs so that those can be transferred and counted towards final degree earned.
Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs) could be set up as models of quality multidisciplinary schooling of world requirements.
There may be a single overarching umbrella body for the complete higher schooling, except for scientific and legal schooling - Higher Education Commission of India (HECI). It can have four independent verticals - National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for law, General Education Council (GEC) for widespread-placing, Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for investment and National Accreditation Council (NAC) for accreditation.
Rationalized Institutional Architecture
HEIs can be evolved into large, well resourced, colorful multidisciplinary institutions offering wonderful teaching, studies, and community engagement. University will allow various establishments that variety from Research-extensive Universities to Teaching-extensive Universities and Autonomous diploma-granting Colleges.
NCTE will develop a National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, in session with NCERT. The minimal degree qualification for teaching might be a four-yr incorporated B.Ed diploma by 2030.
Financial support for students
The National Scholarship Portal will be expanded to assist SC, ST, OBC, and different SEDGs. Private HEIs may be encouraged to growth the number of scholarships to their students.
Open and Distance Learning
This will help in growing Gross Enrollment Ratio via taking measures along with online courses and digital repositories, investment for research, improved student offerings, credit-primarily based recognition of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), etc.
Online Education and Digital Education
MHRD will increase a devoted unit to construct digital infrastructure, digital content, and ability constructing to help both school and better schooling.
Technology in schooling
National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) will be fashioned to provide a platform for the change of thoughts on the use of technology, to enhance learning, assessment, making plans, and administration. Virtual labs can be created to simplify the learning process.
Promotion of Indian languages
The government plans on setting up an Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI) and National Institute (or Institutes) for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, with a view to play an important position in strengthening Sanskrit and all language departments in HEIs.
All expert education will be an important a part of the better training gadget. Self-sufficient technical universities, fitness science universities, legal and agricultural universities, etc., will aim to turn out to be multi-disciplinary establishments.
It is anticipated that the adjustments within the NEP 2020 will reduce regulatory hassles and promote autonomy. The Policy also tries to carry a systemic exchange within the region rather than an incremental one and underlines several new policies on the way to benefit students, schooling companies and the labor market.
Only time will tell regarding how successful this particular policy will be, but this new education policy opens up the windows to the world. The education policy blurred the barriers that were preexisting in the education system giving the students wings to fly but analyzing the consequences of the same policy would take years together as because we will only know about it once its been implemented. But one can only hope that it will be right.